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Goa Education

In the days of the Kadambas, Goa had Pathashalas that trained students in Sanskrit literature, Vedas, Yoga, Shastras etc. In addition, there were small study centers for training and these were run in 'maths', 'agraharas' and 'Brahmapuris'. Subjects taught in these instituations include the Vedas, Shastras, Puranas, mathematics, astrology, literature, grammar, philosophy, medicine etc. Most of these schools run in vestibules of temples, porches of big residential houses, verandhas of village panchayat offices etc. In the early days, education was meant only for Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas.

Goa EducationDuring the period when the Muslims were in the region, they introduced the 'madrasa' for teaching young people. And, when the Portuguese came on the scene, the old schools gave way to schools started by the Portuguese. As early as 1541, the Seminary of the Holy Faith ('Semi-nario de Sante Fe') was founded by the Portuguese: this institution situated in Goa attracted not only the youth of Goa but also others from countries of the East for instruction in the language and science of the West. The Government called this institution a University and its funding largely came from landed properties confiscated by the State after Hindu temples and pagadas were demolished. King John III of Portugal started primary schools in 1554 for learning in reading and writing Portuguese and singing of religious songs. Later, almost all the religious orders set up colleges but the foremost of these orders was the Society of Jesus owned a college at Margoa.

The first official attempt made to start primary education was in 1772 when primary teachers - Professors regions' - were appointed and an education levy was imposed on the people. Not much later, two other institutions were started for the purpose of teaching military and naval arts; and 1812 saw the beginning of the Mathematical School. In 1817, these 3 organizations were merged into one and called 'Academia Military de Goa' but this name was subsequently changed to 'Escola Matematica e Militar.

Goa EducationThe 19th. century saw several schools and colleges being started by the Portuguese tor teaching various subjects such as Chemistry, Medicine, Mathematics. Marathi was one of the subjects that was taught in Goa even during the first half of the 20th. century - and so also, English, French and Latin. The last Order issued by the Portuguese making primary education free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 to 14 was issued on 17th. October 1958 and was introduced from June 1959. However, the benefit of this Order could not really be availed of by most of the Goan people since the Order stipulated evey citizen of Portuguese Empire must study in Portuguese, a language that was known to an extremely small segment of Goa's population.
The first secondary school in Goa was called the Lyceum and it was established in 1854 at Panaji. Later, and English Medium School and a French School were set up at Margoa and Mapusa. As far as higher education was concerned, students had to go to Portugal or to universities in India.

Perhaps as a consequence of these efforts, the 1910 Census showed that the literacy percentage of Goa was 13.1 for persons above the age of 6 years. However, the literacy percentage was at its highest in the Old Conquests in Salcele taluka and Sanquelim (in the New Conquests) was the other taluka that had a high literacy rate. However, until the time of Liberation, the level of literacy remained more or less static. In this context, it is interesting to note that Goa's literacy rate, according to provisional data published for the 1991 Census shows a figure as high as 76.96% as against an all-India figure of 52.11%: perhaps this is one aspect which could be considered to be a major "gain" as a consequence of Liberation.

Goa EducationDuring the post-Liberation period, Goa reached a stage where it could claim to have more primary and secondary schools than in any part of the country. In respect of higher university, Goa has its own university. In the field of primary education, the enrolment is estimated to be at a figure of 99% and for specialised education, this small State has no less than 25 institutions offering degrees and post-graduate education in a wide ranging selection of subjects which cover Humanities, Medicine, Commerce, Science, Engineering, Architecture, Arts and Fine and Commercial Arts.

A further gain for the Goans is the fact that education facilities are linked with manpower requirements of industry, commerce agriculture and the traditional occupations. After Liberation, efforts were made to revive traditional occupations and start industrial training institutes. Some of the educational institutional of Goa include Goa Medical College, Goa.

College of Pharmacy, College of Art, Art and Science College, Teacher's Training College, Engineering College and Centre of Post-Graduates Instruction and Research.

Professional and Technical Education:
These institutions impart training in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, engineering, Teacher's training, Food Craft (through the Food Craft Institute at Alto-Provorim). Vocational technical training is provided at the Industrial Training Institute at Farma-gudi, Pohda.

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