In the days of the Kadambas, Goa had Pathashalas that
trained students in Sanskrit literature, Vedas, Yoga, Shastras etc. In
addition, there were small study centers for training and these were run
in 'maths', 'agraharas' and 'Brahmapuris'. Subjects taught in these
instituations include the Vedas, Shastras, Puranas, mathematics,
astrology, literature, grammar, philosophy, medicine etc. Most of these
schools run in vestibules of temples, porches of big residential houses,
verandhas of village panchayat offices etc. In the early days, education
was meant only for Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas.
the period when the Muslims were in the region, they introduced the 'madrasa'
for teaching young people. And, when the Portuguese came on the scene,
the old schools gave way to schools started by the Portuguese. As early
as 1541, the Seminary of the Holy Faith ('Semi-nario de Sante Fe') was
founded by the Portuguese: this institution situated in Goa attracted
not only the youth of Goa but also others from countries of the East for
instruction in the language and science of the West. The Government
called this institution a University and its funding largely came from
landed properties confiscated by the State after Hindu temples and
pagadas were demolished. King John III of Portugal started primary
schools in 1554 for learning in reading and writing Portuguese and
singing of religious songs. Later, almost all the religious orders set
up colleges but the foremost of these orders was the Society of Jesus
owned a college at Margoa.
The first official attempt made to start primary education was in 1772
when primary teachers - Professors regions' - were appointed and an
education levy was imposed on the people. Not much later, two other
institutions were started for the purpose of teaching military and naval
arts; and 1812 saw the beginning of the Mathematical School. In 1817,
these 3 organizations were merged into one and called 'Academia Military
de Goa' but this name was subsequently changed to 'Escola Matematica e
19th. century saw several schools and colleges being started by the
Portuguese tor teaching various subjects such as Chemistry, Medicine,
Mathematics. Marathi was one of the subjects that was taught in Goa even
during the first half of the 20th. century - and so also, English,
French and Latin. The last Order issued by the Portuguese making primary
education free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 to
14 was issued on 17th. October 1958 and was introduced from June 1959.
However, the benefit of this Order could not really be availed of by
most of the Goan people since the Order stipulated evey citizen of
Portuguese Empire must study in Portuguese, a language that was known to
an extremely small segment of Goa's population.
The first secondary school in Goa was called the Lyceum and it was
established in 1854 at Panaji. Later, and English Medium School and a
French School were set up at Margoa and Mapusa. As far as higher
education was concerned, students had to go to Portugal or to
universities in India.
Perhaps as a consequence of these efforts, the 1910 Census showed that
the literacy percentage of Goa was 13.1 for persons above the age of 6
years. However, the literacy percentage was at its highest in the Old
Conquests in Salcele taluka and Sanquelim (in the New Conquests) was the
other taluka that had a high literacy rate. However, until the time of
Liberation, the level of literacy remained more or less static. In this
context, it is interesting to note that Goa's literacy rate, according
to provisional data published for the 1991 Census shows a figure as high
as 76.96% as against an all-India figure of 52.11%: perhaps this is one
aspect which could be considered to be a major "gain" as a consequence
the post-Liberation period, Goa reached a stage where it could claim to
have more primary and secondary schools than in any part of the country.
In respect of higher university, Goa has its own university. In the
field of primary education, the enrolment is estimated to be at a figure
of 99% and for specialised education, this small State has no less than
25 institutions offering degrees and post-graduate education in a wide
ranging selection of subjects which cover Humanities, Medicine,
Commerce, Science, Engineering, Architecture, Arts and Fine and
A further gain for the Goans is the fact that education facilities are
linked with manpower requirements of industry, commerce agriculture and
the traditional occupations. After Liberation, efforts were made to
revive traditional occupations and start industrial training institutes.
Some of the educational institutional of Goa include Goa Medical
College of Pharmacy, College of Art, Art and Science College, Teacher's
Training College, Engineering College and Centre of Post-Graduates
Instruction and Research.
Professional and Technical Education:
These institutions impart training in the fields of medicine, pharmacy,
engineering, Teacher's training, Food Craft (through the Food Craft
Institute at Alto-Provorim). Vocational technical training is provided
at the Industrial Training Institute at Farma-gudi, Pohda.
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